IQ STUDIES 

 

 

 

 

A summary of intelligence studies and the

 correlation between intelligence and race.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Compiled by

Kent Crutcher

1989

Reviewed 2001

 

 

2196 FM 402

Brownfield, Texas  79316

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Introduction  7
What is Intelligence?  9

Is Intelligence Inherited or a Function of Environment?

11
What is the Environment? 13
IQ Scores, the Average 15

IQ Scores, a Few Points Difference

17
Memory versus Intelligence 19
Other Primate Studies 21
Achievement versus Intelligence 23
Criminal Behavior and Intelligence 25
Are There Intelligence Differences Between Male and Female? 27
Racial Differences Among Infants 29
United States Military Testing of Intelligence 31
Intelligence and Geography 33
Intelligence and Social Class 37
Other Intelligence Studies 39
Education Enrollment and Expenditures 45
Education Levels Among the Races 47
Drop-out Rates 49
Reading Skills 51
Political Involvement on Campus 53
College Entrance Exams - Reliability and Fairness 55
College Entrance Exams Tests Scores 57
College Enrollment Rates by Race 59
College Racial Enrollment - as Percentage of Total 61
College Degrees Granted by Race 63
Financial Aid by Race 65
USA versus Other Nations in Math Scores 67
Intelligence, Work Performance, and the U.S. Economy 69
The Facts Presented, Are They Controversial 75
Racial Demographics 77
Conclusions 81
Appendix One, Arthur Jensen and William Shockley 83
Appendix Two, Compilers' Comments 91

Appendix Three, Reading List

95

 

 

 

          

           

This is Sao Paulo, Brazil.  Over 30% of people in Sao Paulo live in conditions with no water, electricity, or sewer.  These living conditions, and the shelter as you see it, are common in Mexico and other Latin American countries. 

 

 

                                 

                                                                      Afghanistan.

                                            

                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                      

                             Poverty such as this is common in Bombay, India.

 

 

 

 

 

                           

 

York, 1408-23, by William Colchester, completed 1474.

 

The Cathedrals (see next photo) are products of western man and his mind.  These and hundreds of other cathedrals were constructed without the benefit of modern machinery.  Hammer and chisel were the primary tools utilized.

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

In the late 1960's and early 70's, as a boy in junior and senior high school, we would have open-class discussions on the intelligence subject.  At that point in time we would have an achievement test every few years.  By those test scores, our teachers could estimate and chart our IQ (Intelligence Quotient).  None of us kids much liked the test, but it was supposed to assist the teachers in determining areas of innate strength and weaknesses.  Theoretically, the teacher would then be able to assist the student reach a higher potential.  There were no attempts to make any child less than what they were, nor were the test results of the children released for all to see.

 

Most of the children agreed that intelligence was partly hereditary and partly the result of environmental factors.  In the open class discussions, we rarely had specific percentages; some would say mostly genetic, others would say mostly environmental, and still others would say 50/50.  What was most important at that time in our lives was not so much the accuracy of the numbers, but that we explored the subject without oppression and fear of physical and/or mental reprisals.

 

Unfortunately, in the past several decades, America has changed and moved dramatically toward the nihilistic forces about us.  For any thinking person who has lived through this period, this is an honest assessment.   Where there was once free speech, now there are political, legal and social restraints against it.    But there are still the curious minded and the truth seekers and it is to them this short booklet is written.

 

It would be very difficult for the average citizen to research all the hundreds, perhaps thousands, of studies on the subject of intelligence; the time element is prohibitive.   Most of us are too busy in our daily lives just trying to make a living.  Thus, the function of this primer is to again bring light to the subject of intelligence in a short and easy to read manner.   The desire of this compiler is to present to the reader the concept of intelligence and its relationship to race, civilization, and the economic future of this nation.  Hopefully, it will be a catalyst for you to further address the issue in your personal studies and also in your community relationship.


 

 

WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?

  

Let us propose a common sense approach to the definition of intelligence.  For example, Mike (not his real name) walks into a work environment where a dozen men are attempting to solve a particular problem.  If Mike can recognize a solution to the problem after the others have failed, we might say he is more intelligent than the other men.  If, in additional situations, Mike continually solves different problems after failure by other men, we can probably conclude with assurance that Mike is more intelligent than the other men described in this example.

 

The scientific definition of intelligence is not much different from the common sense approach.  It is, however, more exact and complicated, and mathematically more accurate.  The general definition remains the same, that is, the ability to solve problems or the capacity for abstract reasoning and problem solving.  Scientists utilize the IQ test (Intelligence Quotient) to measure intelligence mathematically.  Hundreds of IQ tests and hundreds of studies have conclusively proven that on the average, a person who does well on one IQ test will do well on another, will perform well in school, will obtain high occupational status, and will be judged by others as "bright".

 

 


 

IS INTELLIGENCE INHERITED OR

 A FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENT?

 

Most scientists state that intelligence is 75% to 90% inherited.  This is proven by Jarvik and Erlenmeyer (1967) who compiled original IQ studies to form an estimate of what proportion of the IQ is genetic and what proportion is environmental.  The original studies they compiled were over a period of 50 years (1916 onward) and were on the white populations of the United States and Europe.  On the average, the results indicated that the individual's IQ was 75% genetic and 25% environmental.  This complements some of the most recognized IQ scientists - Arthur Jensen, William Shockley, and Sir Cyril Burt.  Their test results were 80/20, 82/18, and 87/13, respectively.

 

Given superior intelligence genes, only a severely deprived environment will separate a person from possessing a superior IQ.  Likewise, a superior environment will not usually permit a superior IQ given low intelligence ancestors.  The point to remember is that only large swings in environmental factors will produce significant movements in IQ scores.  A person's basic ability to perceive, to solve, and to comprehend is fixed as it relates to the genes we inherit.  Normally, our genetic structure will not change.


 

 

WHAT IS THE "ENVIRONMENT"?

  

Most people think of only the cultural and social surroundings in which the child is raised as the "environment".  This would be the social class of the parents, parental education level, books in the home, and so forth.  But there are other environmental factors such as prenatal care, including the mother's age, her health, smoking, drinking habits, nutrition, and previous pregnancies.  Other factors would be events surrounding the birthing process, child's health history, and other siblings, all of which and many more factors contribute to the mental and physical development of the child.

 

But what if we could eliminate all environmental differences, what effect would this have on the overall IQ equalization concept?  As independent studies have proven, in a perfect environment, an IQ of 80 would rise to 83 and in a poor environment an IQ of 120 would decrease to 117. 

 

What about environmental differences in the public school environment, such as teachers' level of education, books in the library, general appearance of facilities, and so forth?   In studies, there is a greater difference in IQ as it relates to school quality environment when comparing the elementary to high school.  For the 12th grade, comparing the highest 1/5 in quality environment to the lowest 1/5 in quality environment yields only a 1-IQ point difference.  However, the same comparison in elementary school will yield only about a 5-point difference.  This difference may or may not have any correlation with social class, the surrounding neighborhood, the parent's education or IQ level, or the home environment of the child.

 

It may be possible to achieve a better attitude about school in early school enrichment and special studies programs.  However, studies have proven that significantly permanent IQ increases can not be achieved by experiments like the Head Start program.  Although IQ gains do occur, numerous test results prove that the gains will disappear within a few months to a couple of years.  We must therefore conclude that environmental manipulation, excepting basic disciplinary measures, is not the answer to our social and educational problems.


 

 

IQ SCORES, THE AVERAGE

 

The standard for today's IQ measurement was accomplished by Binet and Simon in 1908 and then revised in 1916 to become the Stanford-Binet, the most famous of all tests of intelligence.  On the average, the IQ for white people in America is 100.  Sixty-six percent of white people test between 85 and 115,  90% between 75 to 125, and 95% between 70 to 130.  This "normal curve" has been established by the test results of white children tested in 1937 and reinforced by yearly testing since that date. 

 

 

IQ SCORES, A FEW POINTS DIFFERENCE

  

A difference between an IQ of 90 and 100 is not simply 10%.  In terms of a percentage, the difference is greater.  For clinically "retarded" people, 70-85 is the classification range as defined by IQ scientists.  This is not to say that an IQ of 70 will appear retarded.  It is entirely possible for someone with a retarded IQ to speak and appear entirely "average", but only upon problem solving or reading comprehension in the classroom or workplace will the low intelligence appear.  This is especially true when verbal skills are not near as low as non-verbal skills.  Items such as personality, acquired skills, good memory or special abilities often provide a surface distortion of the actual individual's intelligence.  Studies have shown that misjudgment of a person's intelligence is because of special circumstances.  For example, an outgoing child will usually get a higher intelligence expectation than the shy and reserved child, which may or may not prove to be justifiable.  Parents tend to place a higher weight than justified on a higher intelligence, simply because of a few "brilliant" moments.  On the average, teachers tend to be the best judges of intelligence prior to the actual testing.

 

To place a perspective on IQ ranges, the following is based on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale:   Retarded: below 70, Borderline: 70-79, Dull-normal: 80-90, Normal: 90-109, Bright: 110-119, Superior: 120-129,  and  Very Superior: above 130. 

 

The American Association of Mental Deficiency subdivides the mentally retarded as follows:  Borderline: 70-85 ,   Mildly retarded: 55-69,   Moderately retarded: 40-54,   Severe:  25-39  and  Profoundly:  below 25.  

 

In addition, in comparison to the total white population, the following reflects IQ's with their corresponding inverse percentile rank (highest to lowest - in percentage for each category): 145-99.9%;  135-99%;  125-95%;   115-84%;  110-74%;  105-64%;  100-50%;  95-36%; 90-24%;  85-16%;  80-10%;  75-5%;  65-1%;  and   60-<1%.

 

A table compiled by Cronbach (1960, p174) lists typical IQ levels for various criteria.  Although it would be easy to find individual exceptions, the list gives a ballpark estimate of IQ requirements.  For example, the mean (average) IQ of persons receiving a Ph.D. is 130;  120 - average for college graduates;  115 - average for college freshmen (white collar and skilled parentage);  110 - average for high school graduates (has a 50/50 chance of college graduation);  105 - about a 50/50 chance of passing an academic high school curriculum;  100 - average for total white population;  90 - average from low-income parents, adult can perform jobs requiring some judgment like sewing machine and assembling parts;  75 - about 50/50 chance of reaching high school, adult can keep small store, perform in an orchestra;  60 - adult can repair furniture, harvest vegetables, assist an electrician;  50 - can do simple carpentry, domestic work;  40 - adult can mow lawns and do simple laundry.

 


 

MEMORY VERSUS INTELLIGENCE

 

For several decades, the American public education system leaders have gradually transformed the curriculum from reasoning and intelligence training to more memorization and rote learning.  The question to ask is why would this be allowed to occur? 

 

Studies are conclusive; there is no significant difference among the races in their ability to remember names, objects, numbers, or a series of words.  In memorization, all races are essentially equal.

 

The study by Harlow & Harlow (1962, p34) compares chimpanzees to human children and adults. This test involved hiding different objects (rewards) as the subject(s) watched.  On this memory test, the chimps scored better than any of the human children who were 8 years old, and did almost as well as the human adults.

 

The conclusions drawn from both human and primate studies are that we should not base intelligence tests on sheer memory, even though the measurements are highly reliable, and do possess value, they are not correlated well with intelligence.

 


 

OTHER PRIMATE STUDIES

 

In a study by Hunt (1961, p80-83), children ages 2 to 5 acquired the discrimination learning-set in about 1/2 the number of trials as rhesus monkeys. Within the same text, (p83) on learning-set formation, retarded children with IQ's from 50-75 require many more trials to attain a criterion or perfection in learning-sets. The average IQ younger children and severely retarded (below 50) children do not learn this type of learning-set at all.

 

Kohler's study, The Mentality of Apes, has interesting facts.  Many of the methods used to study monkeys and apes have been used directly to study human children.  There is considerable overlapping in the problem solving abilities between apes and children.  In the problem solving, utilizing sticks to assemble an object in order to receive a reward, brighter chimps do as well as the average 9 to 10 year old child.  Younger and retarded children are not able to assemble the sticks into the desired pattern without instruction.

 


 

ACHIEVEMENT VERSUS INTELLIGENCE

 

 It is important to distinguish between scholastic achievement and IQ scores.  Scholastic achievement can be a function of intelligence, but more importantly it can be a function of environment such as family views and parental expectations.  Certainly good grades may go hand in hand with intelligence, but the two can be mutually exclusive.  That is to say, an average intelligence student can make good grades simply because of hard work, however the susceptibility of superior grades decreases as the intelligence falls below the "average".  Likewise, an average intelligence will tend to restrain high achievement in the more difficult problem solving/cognitive tasks.  Scholastic achievement does tend to interact more with social class than ethnic background or race.  Most of the time academic variation in our schools has little to do with the quality of the schools or the amount of money spent on individual schools.  In most cases, it is related to the attitudes of the parents, the neighborhoods, and personal characteristics of the student, all of which the school and teachers have little or no control.

 

However, we must realize that intelligence does correlate reasonably high with scholastic achievement.  Depending on the test, correlation ranges anywhere from 50% to 80%.  When IQ scores and achievement scores are averaged over three to five years, the correlation approaches 90%. 

 

In addition, other behavior has been found to be highly correlated to intelligence.  Things such as deportment, ability to adapt to new ideas/concepts, delinquency, criminal behavior, activity level (hyperactivity is related to lower IQ), and honesty.

 

 

 

CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR AND INTELLIGENCE

  

According to a 1993 U.S. Justice Department survey, Highlights From Twenty Years of Surveying Crime Victims, about 1.3 million white Americans were victims of violence at the hands of blacks, while only 130,000 (or about one-tenth as many) blacks were victims of white violence over that period.  Adjusted for the relative differences in population, this means that blacks are about 60 times more likely to engage in interracial violence than are whites.  Blacks murder whites at about 18 times the frequency that whites murder blacks.  Similarly, of the 20,000 interracial rapes between whites and blacks cited by the Justice Department in 1994, all but 100 involved black perpetrators with white victims.

 

Are these statistics purely the result of lower intelligence?   Or are other genetic factors plus the media reporting the inverse of reality also important factors?   We do not know for sure.


 

 

ARE THERE INTELLIGENCE DIFFERENCES

BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE?

  

There have been numerous studies which compare right brain and left brain utilization by the two sexes.  Left brain is logical and sequential.  Right brain is imagery and emotional.  In the white race, men tend to be more left brain in solving their problems, while women tend to utilize the right brain more often in solving their daily hurdles.  But this is not the issue of this study on intelligence.  Given formal verbal and non-verbal problems to solve, mathematically, are there intelligence differences between male and female?

 

Among the white population, as proven by IQ tests, one difference does occur consistently.  In spatial-visualization ability, the ability to visualize complex objects, and to mentally manipulate object relationships in more than a two dimensional space, men do better than women.  This would explain why more men are architects and engineers, skills requiring mental manipulation of geometric figures.  Spatial ability also plays a significant role in quantitative, mathematical, problem solving ability.  At best, only 1/4 of the white females can surpass the average white male.  The spatial ability is evident in childhood, but becomes greater after puberty. 

 

White males also are more widely distributed along the normal curve than white females.  That is to say, there are more males in the high IQ and more in the low IQ category as a percentage of total population than the female population.

 


 

RACIAL DIFFERENCES AMONG INFANTS

  

Mexican and black children, as a group, are more precocious at the age of two than white children.  Black, Guatemalan, and Mexican children at age 2-4 weeks have 2-3 times better motor skills than white children.  According to Daniel Freedman, a behavioral scientist at the University of Chicago (Human Sociobiology, 1979), African and Australian aborigine newborns can lift their heads and look around the room.  With Caucasian and Asian children the average date is 4 weeks. 

 

However, Caucasian babies are more temperamental than Mongoloid babies.  White babies cry more and when a rag is placed next to a white baby's face, he will struggle to remove himself from the "irritation", but an Asian baby will lie still, stoically, seemingly undisturbed.  Navaho babies are even more stoical than Chinese or Japanese babies.

 

Black infants show more brain pattern movement than Caucasians and are much more physically capable than the white infant.  However, by age five, the full IQ difference of 15 points between the black and white child has occurred.

 

 

 

UNITED STATES MILITARY

TESTING OF INTELLIGENCE

  

From a composite study performed by Loehlin, Lindzey, and Spuhler (1975), test scores of white and black military recruits for three wars can be reviewed.  In WWI, there was a 17 point difference, based upon already enlisted men, in the white and black soldiers.  In WWII, the difference was 23 points.  However, this was after 5.3% and 48.1% of white and black recruits, respectively, were rejected due to inability to pass the minimum IQ entrance requirement, which was the 75 mental retardation level.  Within the Vietnam War, an IQ difference of 27 points between white and black existed.  However, again, this was after 21% and 72% were rejected for mental retardation.  In addition, as of 1966, the failure rate was 66% for blacks, and 19% for whites, within the induction age rate between 18 and 26.  This failure cutoff point is the equivalent of an 86 IQ, or "borderline" mental retardation.  The white population tested above also included Mexicans.

 

In another study, Army WWI intelligence tests showed that Americans of Northern European descent made better scores than Jews who in turn did better than Americans of Southern European descent - Carl Brigham, A Study of American Intelligence, p160-90.  The difference in scores between Northern and Southern European descent was substantial.

 


 

INTELLIGENCE AND GEOGRAPHY

  

In a study by Lewis Terman, Genetic Studies of Genius (1926), Terman identifies the origin of "gifted" students through the assignment of points to each grandparent's nationality.  Those results follow.

 

 

Nationality Percent Nationality

Percent

English 30.7 Japanese .6
German 15.7 Swiss .6
Scotch 11.3 Spanish .3
Irish 9.0 Bohemian .3
French 5.7 Russian .3
Jew 10.5 Hungarian .3
Ulster Scot 2.8 Romanian .3
Swedish 2.5 Flemish .3
Italian 1.4 Armenian .3
Welsh 1.4 Portuguese .3
Austrian 1.3 Alsatian .1
Norwegian .9 Negro .1
Danish .9 Indian .1
Mexican .1

 

 

The studies were conducted in San Francisco, Oakland, and Los Angeles, where there was a higher proportion of Jews and Mexicans than the rest of America in 1926.  Terman states "It is unfortunate that no very reliable data on the relative frequency of the different racial stocks represented in the cities covered by the main survey are available.  However, even without comparative figures, certain items in Table 8 stand out as significant.  The percentage of Scotch is very high, as is also that of the Jewish groups, especially the Russian Jews.  The English stock heads the list, but this is also probably true in the general population.  The percentage of "Latin" blood is very low.  Negroes represent 2% of the total population. The Chinese schools were not canvassed, however their IQ results compare favorable to the white children in the area.  The test of Japanese children found little evidence that the Japanese are inferior to California white children, with the small differences attributed to the possible language factor".

 

Terman continues, "the total population of Latin extraction in the cities covered is not known, but it is certainly very large in comparison with the number of Latin children in our group. Intelligence tests of many Latin groups in America have yielded consistently low scores, with a median IQ usually between 75 and 85.  Perhaps a median IQ of 80 for the Italian, Portuguese, and Mexican schoolchildren in the cities of California would be a liberal estimate.  How much of this inferiority is due to the language handicap and to other environmental factors it is impossible to say, but the relatively good showing made by certain other immigrant groups similarly handicapped would suggest that the true causes lie deeper than environmental."

 

In a study conducted by Coleman et al (1966), an interesting concept of separating the white and black race by northern urban and southern rural classification was used. Verbal and nonverbal are added together for a composite score of comparison, even though there were often significant differences between verbal and nonverbal comparisons.

 

 

Group Grade1 Grade 2 Grade 6 Grade 9 Grade 12
Northern Urban White 103 105 107 106 106
Asian America 105 100 100 101 100
Southern Rural White 100 101 100 98 98
American Indian 99 96 92 92 92
Northern Urban Black 86 92 92 89 89
Mexican 92 93 87 87 89
Puerto Rican 88 85 79 85 85
Southern Rural Black 83 88 79 77 74

 

 

Reed's 1969 study estimates that the proportion of white genes in the black population is 22%.  Herskovits (1930) concurs with 22%.  Both these are in line with the Shockley estimate of 15 to 25%.  But the higher percentage of white genes within the black population is located in the northern states.  Shockley proves the northern blacks are about 50% white and the southern blacks about 5% white.

 

 


 

INTELLIGENCE AND SOCIAL CLASS

 

Loehlin, Lindzey and Spuhler (1975) presented another summary of test results based upon numerous IQ studies. This time they separate the white and black races down by social class of parent.  Those results are presented below.

 

 

Researcher Low Black Low White High Black High White
Six Earlier Studies (Shuey) 82 94 92 112
Wilson (1967) 94 101 95 109
Tulkin (1968) 91 94 106 113
Sutkei & Meyers (1969) 77 93 96 106
Nichols (1970) 92 97 102 107
Scarr-Salapatek (1971) 82 88 87 101
Nichols & Anderson (1973) 91 94 96 104
Averages 89 95 97 108

                                                            

 

High-social class grouping only includes professional and white-collar workers.  The low-class grouping includes both skilled and unskilled labor.  The percentage breakdown between white and blue collar for each race was not presented by the 1975 study. 

 

Another study conducted by Jensen & Figueroa (1975) indicated that the IQ difference in socioeconomic status (white collar/professional and skilled/unskilled) between whites was 9 points and between blacks was 6 points.

 

Arthur Jensen also constructed a study based upon the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, performed on 622 white and 622 black school children in California. The IQ test involved ten socioeconomic categories for each group.

 

Socioeconomic Class:

 

Race 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
White IQ 85 94 98 104 103 104 106 105 110 106
Black IQ 84 86 86 86 87 90 91 92 93 87

 

 

The correlation between the white child IQ and the parents' social class is relatively low, 30-40%.  As can be viewed above, this means that among the white population, high IQ's are less limited by the socioeconomic class of the parent, they appear at all class levels.  This is true in almost every industrialized country where IQ testing has been done - since the beginning of IQ studies.  Jensen also proves that the black IQ varies less than the white population.  This is to say, more scores fall closer to the center or "average" therefore less widely dispersed than the white population.

 

To date, no one "has yet produced any evidence based on a properly controlled scientific study to show that representative samples of black and white children can be "equalized" in intellectual abilities through statistical control of environment and education." (Jensen 1966)  "I have not been able to find any marshaling of evidence that could reasonably warrant the passionate beliefs that so many people hold concerning the cause of the IQ gap.  Perhaps if any body of evidence were truly compelling, there would be no need for passionate beliefs." (Jensen 1961)

 

 

 

OTHER INTELLIGENCE STUDIES

  

In a study by Garth (1931), the IQ of full blood Indians and mixed (white and Indian) blood Indians was investigated.  His report revealed that mixed blood Indians possessed a higher IQ than full blood Indians.  The IQ went up as the percentage of white genealogy increased.  The figures were 77 for 1/4 Indian, 75 for 1/2, and 74 for 3/4 Indian genealogy.  Because the difference was small, the results suggest that the white parentage was only slightly more intelligent than the Indian.

 

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Within Shuey's (1966) The Testing of Negro Intelligence, the differences in IQ between the black and white race, before 1945 and from 1945-1965, was reported.  He assembled an average based upon a number of studies.  The studies were preschool (17 studies);  pre-high school, individual (43 studies);  pre-high school, non-verbal (41 studies);  pre-high school, verbal (103 studies);  and high school (55 studies).  The chart is shown below.

 

 

Pre-1945 Pre-1945 1945-1965 1945-1965
Grade & Section Tested Black White Black White
High School (HS) 86 97 83 102
Pre High School - Verbal 85 96 83 102
Pre High School - Non-Verbal 83 99 83 101
Pre High School - Individual 85 99 82 96
Preschool 96 105 91 107

 

 

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From Kennedy, Van de Riet, & White (1963), a study was derived based upon the Stanford-Binet IQ test.  The average for the white children was 102 with a "normal distribution" of plus/minus 16 points.  The average for the black children was 81, with a normal distribution of plus/minus 12.  Thus, under the "normal curve", 66% of the white children had an IQ of between 86 and 118, and 66% of the black children had an IQ range between 69 and 93.  Utilizing the American Association of Mental Deficiency IQ scale, this study concludes that over 1/2 of the black children were borderline (less than 85) mentally retarded.

 

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Werner et al (1968) conducted a 5-group test that determined "Primary Mental Abilities".  Those results are as follows.

 

Group Verbal Reasoning Spatial Perceptual Numerical
White 112 115 109 106 101
Japanese 107 112 106 106 106
Filipino 98 104 100 100 100
Hawaiian 98 100 97 99 98
Portuguese 95 96 91 97 96

 

 

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In another study by Werner (1968), a Hawaiian test was conducted starting in 1955 which encompassed all births, when children were 20 months old, and 90% follow up when those children were 10.5 years old.  There were five groups of races and represented 83% of the island population. The results are listed below.

 

Group IQ-20 months IQ-10.5 years # Children
White 98 112 18
Japanese 103 108 253
Filipino 95 101 138
Hawaiian 96 99 180
Portuguese 99 96 46

 

 

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A study conducted by J. C. DeFries (Science 25Jan74) in Hawaii compared whites with Japanese living in America.  The comparison was amazingly close in spatial, verbal, perceptual speed, and visual memory.  The correlation was 96 to 99%.  "We interpret these results as indicating the essentially identical structure of intellect of the two different ethnic groups as represented in Hawaii."

 

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Another study by Jensen from Coleman et al data (1966) compares racial differences among different IQ's (verbal & non-verbal), reading comprehension, math achievement, and general information.  Those comparison differences to the white race are as below.  No allowance has been made for the dropout percentage difference between white and non-white.  To date (1980), this was the most extensive testing of public schools for scholastic aptitudes and achievements. The nationwide study involved more than 675,000 children in 4,000 public schools.  Therefore, the estimate errors would be very small.

 

 

IQ Point Difference Compared to Whites

 

Test Grade Black Mexican Indian Oriental
Verbal IQ 3 10 10 10 6
6 17 17 14 6
9 17 14 12 4
12 19 14 14 4
Non-Verbal IQ 3 11 8 6 2
6 17 17 12 5
9 15 12 8 0
12 20 12 9 -1
Reading Comprehension 3 13 11 9 4
6 13 14 12 5
9 14 12 10 3
12 16 13 13 5
Math Achievement 3 13 10 9 4
6 16 15 14 6
9 15 12 11 1
12 17 11 11 1
General Information 9 18 14 12 4
12 19 15 12 4
Average 15 13 11 4

 

                                            

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Another study by Jensen (American Educational Research Journal-1973) concerned a comparison among whites, negroes, and Mexicans at grades 4, 5, and 6.  On this test, reading difficulty in the Verbal section was simplistic and in the Non-Verbal section no words were used (figural materials used).  There was no time limit and no penalty for guessing.  Jensen removed all question of bias testing.  The racial differences in IQ were essentially the same as other studies - 12 to 15 points between white and black, and a little less difference between white and Mexican.

 


 

EDUCATION ENROLLMENT AND EXPENDITURES

 

Perhaps the best place to start in this analysis is student enrollment in our education system and the associated historical cost.  In 1960 America, blacks were 12% of the nation's population, about like now.  The Asian and Indian population was nominal and the Mexican population was slightly less than 1%.  The balance of the population was white.   In the same year, 1960, there were 42 million students in elementary and secondary schools and 3 million in higher education (colleges).  At that point in our history, (1986 constant dollars), we spent $80 billion and $30 billion respectively for these services.  In 1986, we had enrollment of 48 million in pre-college schools and 11 million in college.  However, (again in 1986 dollars), we spent $180 billion and $110 respectively.  Therefore, we spent $1904 per pupil in 1960, and in 1986 we spent $3750 per pupil within schools below the college level.  Comparing apples to apples, (inflation removed: 1986 dollars), we spent over twice as much per pupil, and 2.25 as much in total expenditures from 1960 to 1986.   In higher education, we spent $30 billion in 1960 and $110 billion in 1986.  Per pupil expenditure computed is $10,000 for 1960 and $10,000 for 1986 (inflation removed).  Therefore our total expenditure per pupil in college students has not gone up during the periods compared, but actual expenditures have risen about 3.7 times from 1960 to 1986.

 

This information is taken from the American Digest of Educational Statistics, 1988.

 


 

 

EDUCATION LEVELS AMONG THE RACES

  

Total years education completed among the races, 1970, 1980, and 1986 are analyzed for the ages 25-29.

 

 

Race Description Year % Year % Year %
White  4 + Years of High School 1970 78 1980 87 1986 87
White 4 + Years of College 1970 17 1980 24 1986 24
Others 4 + Years of High School 1970 58 1980 77 1986 85
Others 4 + Years of College 1970 10 1980 15 1986 16

 

This information is taken from the American Digest of Educational Statistics, 1988.  In 1970, Mexicans are included in white.

 


 

 

DROPOUT RATES

 

Dropout rates for the three main races are listed below.

 

Race Year Ages Surveyed 25-29

Ages Surveyed 20-21

White 1970 20% 15%
Black 1970 44% 30%
White 1980 13% 15%
Black 1980 23% 25%
Mexican 1980 41% 42%
White 1986 13% 15%
Black 1986 18% 18%
Mexican 1986 39% 35%

 

This information is taken from the American Digest of Educational Statistics, 1988.  In 1970, Mexican is included in white.


 

 

READING SKILLS

 

On reading proficiency the following indicates race comparisons/proficiency rates among different ages, at different reading levels, at different time periods.  The percentage figures represent those able to understand the stated difficulty level, from basic to advanced.

 

 

Year Race Age Basic Intermediate Adept Advanced
1970 White 9 65% 18% 1% 0%
1970 Black 9 22%   1% 0% 0%
1984 White 9 71% 22% 1% 0%
1984 Black 9 39%   5% 0% 0%
1984 Mexican 9 43%   1% 0% 0%
1970 White 17 98% 85% 41% 6%
1970 Black 17 84% 41%   7% 0%
1984 White 17 99% 89% 45% 6%
1984 Black 17 97% 66% 16% 1%
1984 Mexcian 17 97% 69% 20% 1%

 

                                      

Within the 17-year-olds, no adjustments have been made for the dropout differences among the races, and the 1970 white includes Mexicans.

 

Going further on comprehension abilities, other areas are discussed.  First, within Prose Comprehension, on a score of 300, which is the ability to locate information in a newspaper or an almanac, 63% of white, 24% black and 41% Mexican could do so.  On a score of 350, the ability to synthesize the main argument from a lengthy newspaper editorial, 25% white, 3% black and 12% Mexican could do so.

 

On Document Literacy, (the ability to use indexes, tables, and order forms, etc.) those scoring 300, which is the ability to use a map in getting from one location to another, 65% white, 19% black, and 37% Mexican could do so.  On a score of 350, the ability to understand a bus schedule, 25% white, 3% black and 6% Mexican could do so.

 

On Quantitative Literacy, (the ability to add, subtract, divide and multiply) those scoring 300, which is the ability to enter deposits/checks and balance a checkbook, 63% white, 22% black and 37% Mexican could do so.  On a score of 350, which is the ability to determine a tip in a restaurant using a given percentage, 27% of white, 2% black and 11% Mexican could accomplish this.

 

This information is taken from the American Digest of Educational Statistics, 1988.

 

 


 

POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT ON CAMPUS

 

Political involvement by race percentages contrast inversely with intelligence.  The information below demonstrates "young adult" participation percentages in politics in 1979 (Carter) and 1986 (Reagan).

 

 

1979 1986 1979 1986

1979

1986

1979 1986
Activity White White Black Black Mexican Mexican Asian Asian
Gave Money to Candidate 19% 13% 28% 20% 23% 17% 19% 11%
Attended Political Gathering 20% 15% 30% 22% 24% 16% 20% 16%
Voted 70% 61% 63% 63% 54% 53% 59% 57%

 

                                               

This information is taken from the American Digest of Educational Statistics, 1988.

 

 


 

 COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMS -

RELIABILITY AND FAIRNESS

 

The SAT (Student Achievement Test) is the most widely used entrance test.  As its name implies, the student is measured on past achievement and this exam is a very good indicator of the ability to understand college level work.  It has a proven track record of selecting the most able with a high degree of probability accuracy.  Originally, the average score for whites in 1936 was 500 on each of two sections.  Currently, only about 20% white and 1-2% black make 500 or above on the verbal SAT. 

 

Much concern has been focused on the significant drop in recent year's SAT scores.  One factor is that more students, especially non-whites, are enrolling in college.  Another factor could be the declining birth rate of the more intelligent white college applicants, even though the percentage of total whites enrolled has risen slightly.  But the more plausible reason is probably the deterioration of our public schools due to lower standards brought on by racial integration.  And like public schools, academic standards at different schools differ enormously.  Medical and Law school admittance scores for blacks and Mexicans are generally 100 to 150 points lower than whites.  Even though personal interviews and letters of recommendation have proven a very unreliable basis for admittance, they are increasingly utilized to increase percentages of blacks and Mexicans. 

 

It is interesting to note that in a study by Jencks et al (1972), the use of IQ tests instead of school grades actually doubled the percentage of scholarship winners from working class homes.  Other studies have shown that the white middle and lower classes are the prime losers in non-standardized, non-objective, admittance policies.

 

For whites, the high school grade point average (GPA) is a better predictor of college grades than the SAT, but for blacks, the opposite is true, probably because high school grading standards are less uniform for blacks.  For those who argue that the SAT is racially biased, it is interesting to note that studies prove test scores generally "overestimate" the GPA for the black and Mexican populations.  Numerous studies have shown that when significant bias has been found, it has profoundly been in favor of non-whites.  If getting into college were a sole function of SAT scores, one population group would show the largest gain in college admissions:  the white, and blue-collar worker's children.  The SAT can "read-through" social classes and select, objectively, the student with the most talent for a college education.  The SAT is certainly more accurate than interviews by college admissions officers, which have minimum statistically significant value.  There is no question that the SAT is a very good predictor for college GPA performance.  No test is perfect, nor will we ever be able to design a perfect predictor of achievement, but the SAT has been a good tool for elimination of the least able.

 


 

COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMS TEST SCORES

 

 

Test Type Race 1975 1980 1986
SAT Verbal Scores White 451 442 447
Black 332 332 351
Mexican 371 373 379
Puerto Rican 364 353 360
Asian 414 397 405
American Indian 388 391 393
Other 410 388 405
SAT Math Scores

White

493 483 489
Black 354 362 377
Mexican 410 415 424
Puerto Rican 401 398 400
Asian 518 513 521
American Indian 420 425 432
Other 458 447 455
SAT Totals

White

944 925 936
Black 686 694 728
Mexican 781 788 803
Puerto Rican 765 751 760
Asian 932 910 926
American Indian 808 816 825
Other 868 835 860
 

  

Within these scores, there has been no adjustment for the dropout differences among the races.  Usually, only a college bound senior in high school will sit for the exam.  Therefore, using 1986 dropout rates (ages 20-21) and 1985 college enrollment rates (see discussion in next paragraph) as a percentage of high school graduates for each race, we can determine the percentage of total race population taking the SAT test.  For the white race, this represents the higher achieving 30% of the total white population (100% minus 14% dropout multiplied by 35% high school graduates enrolled).  For the black student population, this represents the upper 21%  (100% minus 18% dropout rate multiplied by 26% high school graduates enrolled) of the total available college age black population.  And for the Mexican population, this represents the upper 18% (100% minus 35% dropout rate multiplied by 27% high school graduates enrolled) of the total available college age Mexican population.

 

 

 

COLLEGE ENROLLMENT RATES BY RACE

 

The following lists college enrollment participation rates for 18 to 24 year olds. 

 

 

Year Race Age 18-24 HS Graduates
1970 White 27% 33%
1970 Black 16% 26%
1980 White 26% 32%
1980 Black 19% 28%
1980 Mexican 16% 30%
1985 White 29% 35%
1985 Black 20% 26%
1985 Mexican 17% 27%

 

 


              

COLLEGE RACIAL ENROLLMENT - AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL

 

And the total college enrollment percentage by race is:

 

Year Race  Percentage
1970 White 93%
1970 Black   7%
1970 Mexican Included in White!
1980 White 86%
1980 Black 10%
1980 Mexican   4%
1986 White 83%
1986 Black 11%
1986 Mexican   6%

 

According to the U.S. government, if it is not black or Mexican, it must be white!

 
 

 

COLLEGE DEGREES GRANTED BY RACE

 

            Bachelor degrees granted were:

 

Year White Black Mexican Asian A. Indian
1977 808,000 59,000 19,000 14,000 3,000
1979 1,303,000 60,000 20,000 15,000 3,000
1981 807,000 61,000 22,000 19,000 4,000
1985 826,000 57,000 26,000 25,000 4,000

 

Dr.'s degrees were 71% white, 12% Asian, 4% black, 3% Mexican and 10% other races.

 

In the spring of 1986, of the 1980 high school seniors in the United States, a certain percentage had obtained Bachelors degrees.  The white race had 20% degreed, black 10%, Mexican 7%, Asian 27%, and American Indian was 11%.  Only 1% of the whites and 2% of the Asians had graduate degrees.


                        

FINANCIAL AID BY RACE

 

On the receipt of financial aid, the percentages are inverse from those concerning IQ and achievement.

 

As a percentage of the total college population:

 

Race Per Pupil Race Total Grants Loans

Work Study

White $2,061 43% 35% 24%   6%
Black $2,410 64% 57% 35% 10%
Mexican $2,500 48% 41% 24%   6%
Asian $2,842 41% 36% 18%   8%
American Indian $2,126 49% 41% 20%   7%

 

 

                                                                                    

 

USA VERSUS OTHER NATIONS IN MATH SCORES

 

Let's compare ourselves to the world in our mathematics ability (percentage correct) in high school education expenditures as a percentage of gross national product (GNP) (1982).

 

 

Nation % Math Answers Correct Education as a % of GNP
Canada 50% 8.3%
France 53% 5.8%
Hungary 56% 5.0%
Japan 62% 5.7%
USA 45% 5.6%

 

 

 


INTELLIGENCE, WORK PERFORMANCE,

 AND THE UNITED STATES ECONOMY

 

Not only does the IQ predict education performance well, it also predicts with good accuracy job performance, as numerous studies have shown.  There is no job where intelligence is totally irrelevant.  Jobs differ in their intelligence required, and many jobs cannot be routinized but require thinking, judgment, planning and deciding based upon forever changing information.  Because of the type of job that requires more than routine action, it is certainly reasonable to utilize hiring and promotion tests as an objective means of predictive measurement.

 

The GATB, General Aptitude Test Battery, developed by the U.S. Employment service in 1945, is still state of the art in pre-employment testing.  And the third and most massive validation database is the set of studies of training success conducted by the U.S. military.  Both reveal that blacks score significantly lower than whites not only on aptitude test scores, but also on actual work sample and job knowledge testing.  GATB studies indicate that its aptitude tests overestimate actual black job performance to the extent that no underestimation of performance is ever found.  More blacks than whites that passed the minimal score on the test failed to perform on the job.

 

Thanks to a series of studies by applied psychologists John Hunter, Frank Schmidt, and their associates, we know quite a lot about the predictors of individual occupational success in the United States.  One such work is within the Journal of Applied Psychology, 1988, Vol. 73, No. 1, 46-57.  This study proves conclusively that job performance and IQ go hand in hand.  This fact even prevails after the training period and to the end of the study period, 61 plus months.  In addition, "there is no apparent reason why the finding of validity stability in this study would not generalize at least to other jobs (and in particular, to civilian jobs) that are at the same general level of complexity and mental challenge." (The study was on repairmen within the military.)

 

Another article appears in the Atlantic Monthly, May 1989.  It was written by Herrnstein and is entitled IQ and Falling Birth Rates.  "One analysis estimated that Philadelphia would lose $170 million in productivity over a ten-year period by not using an intelligence test when hiring recruits for the police department".  Losses would be greater by failing to test applicants for jobs demanding greater cognitive complexity, such as computer programming.  He further analyzes "the American work force as a whole. The productivity difference between a labor force selected by intelligence tests and one selected at random from applicant pools was estimated to be worth a minimum of $80 billion in 1980.   That is about the size of the total annual corporation profit for the Fortune 500 in that year."

 

Another study by Hunter/Schmidt compared intelligence test scores with ten other predictors of productivity (job tryout, biographical inventory, reference check, experience, interview, training and experience ratings, academic achievement, education, interest, and age) of entry-level employees in a variety of occupations.  All the variables except age had some predictive validity, but intelligence scores had the most.  Near the bottom of predicting job performance were academic achievement and education, respectively.  For employees already on the job, intelligence scores predicted performance after promotion as well as, or better than, measures based on past performance. One must conclude that sending more people to college for more years seems to offer little benefit to improved job performance.

 

In addition, the two authors cite the differential in the fertility rates of women of different intelligence.  "At the very least, we should stop telling bright young women that they make poor use of their lives by bearing and raising children, as commencement speakers and others have implied to educated women for decades".

 

A set of articles on IQ and job performance appears in the Journal of Vocational Behavior, the entire December 1986 issue.  The magazine is scholarly in nature (therefore the circulation is low).  The five scientist contributors to this publication were Arthur Jensen, Robert Thorndike, John Hunter, James Crouse, and Linda Gottfredson.

 

The Gottfredson article is selectively quoted.  This article illustrates in several ways the significant effect that differences in intelligence in a work force may have on the structure and functioning of whole societies.

 

"There is now ample evidence that general intelligence represents real and fundamental differences in how well individuals perform cognitive tasks, that intelligence is surprisingly stable at the individual level, that racial-ethnic differences are real, large, and still resistant to deliberate change, and that differences in intelligence affect performance in important non-educational arenas. The obvious social and political implications of such research have generated controversy so heated that it imposes a virtual taboo against scientifically investigating the practical importance of intelligence."

 

"Intelligence emerges as the single most useful worker attribute for predicting job performance, as a valid predictor in all types of jobs, and as an especially valid predictor of performance in more complex and higher level jobs."

 

According to her studies, the use of educational level is a fallible signal of worker quality.  "Education is more useful than intelligence for getting a good job even though intelligence is more useful for performing it well".  "If the link between intelligence and education were to be weakened or broken, educational credentials would lose their previous value for getting good jobs because they would lose their value to employers as signals of overall worker quality."

 

Gottfredson lists a few common occupations and the percentage of the population above the minimum IQ required.  For example, 1.1% of the black and 23% of the white population have a sufficient IQ to be a doctor or an engineer;  3.3% and 35% of black and white, respectively, have the IQ to be a college teacher;  and 43% and 83%, respectively, have the genetic ability to be an acceptable meat cutter.

 

"A critical but mistaken assumption is that differences in intelligence create no noticeable or significant differences in job performance among equally highly educated individuals, all of whom are presumed to have learned approximately the same skills in school.  Being so widely accepted, however, this misconception about the value of schooling versus intelligence has been particularly mischievous in public life, because it turns well-intentioned but failing educational remedies for a difficult social problem into additional sources of rancor, with educators and employers often receiving much of the blame for those failures."

 

"Blacks already enter college and obtain more years of education than whites of the same intelligence level, which means, conversely, that blacks have lower average IQ's than do whites with the same amount of education. The large mean black-white differences in SAT and Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores are consistent with this pattern, as too is evidence that blacks fail professional licensing exams at a much higher rate that do whites (Humphreys, 1980; Race Bias, 1986)."

 

"The foregoing black-white differences in intelligence at equivalent educational levels suggest that if employers rely heavily and equally on educational levels credentials when selecting black and white workers, then the blacks they select can be expected to be less productive on the average than the whites they select."

 

This concludes selected quotes from the lengthy Gottfredson study.  On a recent Internet search, she had another very interesting study.  As a side note, it stated that she travels yearly to Central America, at her expense, to assist the poor and needy.

 

Another article by Hunter appeared within the same issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior.   John E. Hunter states, "This paper reviews the hundreds of studies showing that general cognitive ability predicts job performance in all jobs, including the so-called "manual" jobs as well as "mental" jobs."

 

"For civilian jobs, job knowledge is correlated 80% with job performance and general cognitive ability is correlated 80% with job knowledge. General cognitive ability predicts performance ratings in all lines of work, though validity is much higher for complex jobs than for simple jobs. General cognitive ability predicts training success at a uniformly high level for all jobs."

 

 


THE FACTS AS PRESENTED,

ARE THEY CONTROVERSIAL?

 

As presented in newspapers, movies, TV, public education, and governmental institutions, one would think that the material outlined in this primer is one-sided and absolutely controversial in nature.  By their incessant multi-cultural, multi-racial, pluralistic agenda, we would probably conclude that only a "Nazi" or "racist" would believe there are significant genetic intelligence differences among the races - and those differences effect the quality of life about us.

 

But the fact is that there is very little disagreement among those whose lives are dedicated toward the study of intelligence.  Among those most recognized people in this profession, the agreement is conclusive:

 

 - There are significant differences in intelligence among the races.

 

- The IQ differences are predominately genetic, 75% being the average consensus of trained researchers.

 

- Intelligence is the primary factor determining the degree of success in education and work productivity from both an individual and national perspective.

 


RACIAL DEMOGRAPHICS

 

The people of Mexico and Central America are similar in genetics and habit.  From these groups come most of the immigrants to America, legal and illegal.  Genetically, the people are racially mixed, but the genealogy is predominantly native Indian, with a small addition of European and African - the mix depending on the individual.

 

In Mexico, the minimum education level is the 6th grade, but achievement toward this government goal is actually the 4th grade.  A very large percentage of the population is below 25 and the average number of children produced per couple is about 6, about 4 times that of white people in the United States.

 

Fifty-four million pass through the Tijuana border gates each year.  The San Diego police department, along with dozens of other border city police, have a policy not to arrest illegal aliens.

 

    The recent population history (legal/official) of mestizos/Latinos in the United States is:

 

1940

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
1.6 million 2.3 million 3.8 million 9.2 million 15 million 25 million

 

As with most nations of Latin America, the population doubles every 22 years.  Today the population of combined Latin America is estimated to be 550 million.  The United States is 250 million.  By 2010 the Latin American population will be 1 billion.  As with Africa, there is one predominant problem with the rising "Latin" population;  these economies will not be able to feed their population.

 

Today, Mexico, with 90 million in population, must create 1 million jobs a year in the 1990's just to hold the line on their 40% unemployment rate.  In other words, Mexico must create half the jobs the U.S. does a year, but our economy is 20 times larger.  Latin America, with an economy one-fifth that of the economy of the United States, will have to create 4 million jobs a year, twice the U.S. average in the 1970's, just to maintain current unemployment rates of 40%.  Within 20 years, with open borders, the white population of the United States will be a minority in the country that it founded 400 years ago.

 

The black population of America produces about 4 children per "family", about twice the rate of whites. 

 

The white population does not reproduce high enough to replace itself.  In addition, the more intelligent, career minded white women in America produce even fewer children, per capita.

 

Since 1973, over 1.5 million white children per year have been aborted in the United States, over 40 million through 2000.

 

Immigration policy/law in America favors third world immigration, all non-whites, by a 9 to 1 ratio over whites.

 


 

CONCLUSIONS

 

         1.  Intelligence is the primary factor in the individual's success or failure in both the education and  work environment.

 

         2.  Intelligence is predominantly inherited and only large swings in the environment can significantly alter this fact.

 

         3.  Intelligence is a primary factor in creating wealth and goods.  It is the primary factor in job proficiency and productivity in all types of jobs, more so in the higher cognitive employment.

 

          4.  There are significant differences in intelligence among the races, specifically white to black and white to Mexican.

 

          5.  As demonstrated by the comparative economies of the United States versus Latin America and Africa, intelligence significantly influences the prosperity of a nation.

 

          6.  The United States is quickly becoming a non-white nation, due to immigration from all the Third-world nations.

 

          7. The United States economy and quality of life will soon resemble the economies of the Third-world nations from which immigrants of the immediate past generation have come.

 

          8.  Along with economic transitions of the United States, in the next three decades will come significant social and cultural changes.

 

 


APPENDIX ONE

 

ARTHUR JENSEN:

  

Dr. Arthur Jensen is an educational psychologist at UC-Berkley, that school of education named after him.  During the 60's he began to worry about the "environmentalist" dogmatic view that intelligence was predominantly environmentally determined.  From the late sixties through the 1980's he wrote numerous articles and several books on the subject of intelligence.  Today, Mr. Jensen is considered to be the father of modern IQ research.  Visit any university library and read  your choice of his numerous studies or books.

 

In 1969, he stated that there has been a push or concerted effort to close the gap between majority and minority students.  As to date, he states, there has been no significant improvement in this gap of achievement.  He asks the question, "if our machines break down or our airplanes stop flying, would not we fix them?  Why don't we make the same effort in the education of our children?"

 

In his many studies,Jensen discusses predominant IQ myths.   Several are discussed below.

 

One is the "average child" concept. This is the belief that all children are "born basically equal" in abilities, but thereafter environmental factors shape the IQ of the individual.  Heredity is but a nominal factor in the success or failure of this person.  IQ floats with education levels and other stimuli.  Jensen rejects this hypothesis.

 

The second hypothesis is closely related to the first.  It is the "social deprivation hypothesis."  As the name implies, most slum children are doomed to failure because of the poor environment in which they live.  Mr. Jensen also rejects this concept.

 

Another related misconception is the "Know all vs. Know nothing" ploy.  The concept is that if we do not know all the implications of IQ use and measurement, then we must know nothing.  If we know nothing, then the measurement is worthless and if worthless, then why even speak or discuss the subject; it just causes unnecessary conflict.

 

Furthermore, he discusses the common fallacies of "father absence" and "low expectations of results".  Per Jensen's studies these factors will not make a significant effect on IQ score test results. He addresses the premise that blacks are greater disadvantaged therefore this is the reason for a lower IQ.  Jensen compares the American Indian, the most environmentally deprived race in America, to the black situation.  Yet, the American Indian scores higher than the black on IQ tests.  He further states that black girls score higher than black boys do on IQ tests.  The cause is unknown, but the gap grows larger as they progress in age.

 

Jensen does suggest better physical care of the student.  He suggests focus be shifted from the social problems fallacy to better nutrition and prenatal care.

 

Other points of interest, as noted by Jensen studies:

 

 Jensen's research shows that parents of severely subnormal children were evenly distributed among all races and all economic classes.

 

He conducted a mice-breeding study.  Based upon maze solving abilities, Jensen selects the "dull" mice of each generation for breeding purposes.  After six generations the "dull" mice make 100% more mistakes than the "bright" mice do in the life of maze navigation.

 

He sites the considerable irrefutable facts presented in studies in twins, both identical and non-identical that were raised apart, usually by adoption or another unfortunate separation.  The end conclusions were that there were no significant IQ differences in any of the hundreds of twins studied over the years.  Even where the rearing environment between the two was severely different, the IQ difference was small.

 

He studied inbreeding.  In Japan, 5% of the married population are first or second cousins.  Children of this type marriage, on the average, score 8 points lower on IQ tests than children of non-related parents.  In cases of incestual offspring, (brother/sister, half brother/sister, father/daughter), over 50% of the resulting children are intellectually retarded with an IQ of between 75 to 85.  The average decrease in IQ resulting from these children is 15 points lower than the norm. 

 

Jensen studied possible dysgenic trends.  In one study he targeted a large Midwestern city.  Results revealed that one-third of the city's mentally retarded (75 to 85 IQ) children came from 5% of the population that resided in a small section of the inner city. The "inescapable conclusion is that the transmission of mental retardation from parent to child is by far the most important single factor in the persistence of this social misfortune."

 

He asks the question, "Is our National IQ declining?" He mentions the fact that lower IQ parents tend to have many more children than the more intelligent parents.

 

Jensen states that the black community (and let the reader add the Mexican) should be the most concerned. The black middle and upper class have fewer children than the average white family counterparts.  However the current welfare policies actually encourage the production of welfare babies.  It is common sense that if we subsidize something, we will get more of the same.  He calls these irresponsible governmental policies "genetic enslavement" and he states "the possible consequences of our failures to seriously study these questions may well be viewed by future generations, as our society's greatest injustice to blacks."

 

Jensen notes the "cumulative deficit."  This problem occurs when the lower IQ student begins to progress in school grades.  The student either fails to learn the material initially and is promoted or simply is unable to understand the problem solving intensity of natural grade advancement.

 

Jensen also notes two types of mental abilities.  The first is "associative learning abilities" and the second is "cognitive" abilities, the latter being classified as intelligence.

 

Associative learning abilities measure how fast children can memorize something.  He mentions the ability of some black children to learn every name in the class in just a few days, but this same individual has a low IQ.  At the same time a high IQ student learns only a few names in the first few months.  Associative intelligence would be the ability to learn a sequence of digits, recall of names, or any type of pure memorization.  According to Jensen, on the average, all races do about the same on these types of tests compared to the average middle class child.  Lower class children in the 60-80 IQ range do substantially better than middle class children in the same IQ range.  Above the IQ of 100, there is no substantial difference in test results between the two classes on this type of ability.  Again, associative learning is not to be confused with problem solving or cognitive learning.  This would explain some of the complaints from parents and teachers about a "bright" child (good memory) with a substandard IQ.  This is also an argument of the black or Mexican who states that the IQ is racially biased, because it does not measure points of strength or equivalency.

 

On the subject of creativity, Jensen states that the popular psychological and educational literature has promoted the idea that creativity is a distinct trait, or even opposed to intelligence.  "The belief is probably born of the hope that if a person is deficient in intelligence, there is a chance that he may possess an abundance of something at least equally valuable - creativity.  However, there is no sound scientific basis for this hope."

 

Jensen states (BMT, p49), "Time and again the case has been made that to abolish testing would only make selection more biased.  Selection circumstances and training determine a person's behavior makes a travesty of democratic notions of individual choice, responsibility, and freedom."

 

 

 

WILLIAM SHOCKLEY:

 

Dr. William B. Shockley is another noted IQ researcher and one of the most influential men of our time.  He is the co-inventor of the transistor, the device from which many of our current advanced electronics are derived.  Shockley shared the Nobel Prize with two other men from Bell Laboratories, John Bardeen and the late Walter H. Brattain.  The team's first device developed during what they later called a "magic month" in 1947.  It was an innovation that made vacuum tubes obsolete and the electronic age possible.  Most modern devices, from airplanes to wristwatches to computers, contain the technical descendants of Shockley's work.

 

As co-inventor of the transistor, Shockley did as much to shape the modern world as Louis Pasteur or Madame Curie, colleagues said.  "I would say he would have to be compared to people who opened up huge new areas, such as Pasteur or the Salk vaccine," said Professor William E. Spicer, Shockley's friend and colleague for 33 years.  He died at his home on the campus of Stanford University where he was a professor emeritus of electrical engineering.  In addition, he lectured and wrote extensively.

 

Shockley also developed other areas of study.  He sparked campus demonstrations by claiming that intellectually inefficient blacks were producing children faster than mentally capable whites.  His genetic theories prompted debate over the use of IQ tests in schools and over why blacks failed to score as well as whites.

 

    Stanford twice rejected Shockley's proposal for a special course on racial intelligence; even his physics classes were not free from disruption.  Shockley’s efforts to debate often evoked violent reactions. 

 

Within Newsweek (17Dec1973), the article openly states that an "easy case can be made that Shockley is a racist."  He is a racist because "he believes that the U.S. would be a lesser nation if it were to become predominantly black."  In another Newsweek article (10May7l), Shockley is quoted as saying "the difficulty of the black minority is a basic difference in the genetic potential for developing the capacities needed to approach parity in modern technological society, and if this disparity is indeed becoming worse in each generation, then the failure to diagnose is a profound moral irresponsibility."

 

He discussed a philosophy of "retrogressive evolution" which stipulates that intelligence is genetically transmitted.  He called this "Dysgenics".  It was Shockley's theory that society is evolving backward because of "excessive reproduction of the genetically disadvantaged."  He stated that less intelligent blacks were reproducing faster than whites (and let the reader add Mexicans), hence, the retrogression in human evolution.  At one time, he proposed that black women be paid not to reproduce.  He also proposed cash bonuses for voluntary sterilization of people whose IQ, among other factors, indicated their reproduction would "down-breed" society. "My position is that human quality problems in the United States arise more from disadvantages in genes than from environmental ones."  Shockley told the Commonwealth Club meeting in San Francisco, "We have a moral obligation to diagnose our human-quality problems, especially those of American Negroes."  "On the whole, I regard it a tragic situation in a number of ways.  It is obviously very painful for the black minority.  The black minority is the group that is most important for my ideas to reach because they are the segment of the U.S. population most threatened by dysgenics."


 

 

APPENDIX TWO

COMPILER'S COMMENTS

 

This short presentation on intelligence should provide a foundation for those who wish to pursue the issue and study the subject further.  It is clear, there are significant genetic intelligence differences in racial groups and those differences are reflected in education and work performance.  In addition, these differences directly effect the quality of a nation and the prosperity of the people within. 

 

I struggle with presentation to the reader of other factors not discussed in this primer that significantly effect the quality of a nation.

 

The first and obvious fact is that modern societal problems in America and across the world are primarily the result of decisions made by higher IQ people.  To accept this fact, but also acceptance that a nation requires a higher IQ people to be prosperous, are in conflict.  To balance the two concepts requires the added gift of wisdom.  Surely this is a needed subject of discussion, but it is beyond the scope of this primer. 

 

Another point of concern is why do people of northern European ancestry, specifically the Nordic type, consistently test significantly higher in intelligence than the other categories of Caucasians classified as "white".   They also test higher than Asians and any other racial or ethnic group.  The point to be made is that the broad group of "white" is misleading.  This is an important factor never presented in intelligence studies.

 

In another related area, if Asians and "whites" are essentially equal in intelligence as the tests indicate, why have the other races always flocked to the white nations of the world to alleviate their poverty, hunger and oppression?  Excepting Japan, why are all Asian nations "third-world", and struggle with feeding themselves?  In conjunction, when a natural disaster occurs, why is it that only the white nations of the world rush in unselfishly to provide relief and comfort to the victims of tragedy?  This is another factor, in addition to intelligence, equally important, yet untapped by researchers.   It is a missing puzzle piece that needs attention.

 

The concept of self-rule and self-determination is another issue not addressed in this primer. Historically speaking, the non-white races have almost always lived under brutal dictatorships, yet Western Civilization, under constant attack from multiple circles today, has for 4500 years been the light for liberty and justice in the world.  This is another factor that needs our research, in conjunction with the study of intelligence, in the making of a nation.

 

These questions, and dozens of others, are clearly  very important factors that determine the type of nation in which we live.  But as proven in this primer, intelligence is at the forefront, a proven significant factor in determining the quality of life around us.  If we are to survive as a nation, this specific issue, intelligence, must be addressed publicly and done so quickly.  I pray that our people arise to the challenge before us.

 


 

APPENDIX THREE

READING LIST

 

1.      A good start would be to look at the research already presented in this summary of IQ studies.  Many can be found in university libraries.  Written material still prevails, but do an Internet search on intelligence. There's tons of materials on the subject.

 

2.      Any university library will have Jensen’s work.  Do a search for the several books and dozens of research papers this dedicated man has written.  His most recent work is The g Factor, 1998, the definitive work on the subject.  

 

3.      I am not aware of any books Shockley has written, but he has published several studies on the subject of intelligence.  His work may be more difficult to find, as many university libraries purge the older and non-politically correct papers.

 

4.      Although the following books have nothing to do with intelligence studies directly, they might help the reader better understand why the racial implications of intelligence studies have been largely eliminated from the public eye:

 

-         Race by Oxford professor Dr. John Baker discusses, in part, the realities of the inner Africa tribesmen by early 19th century explorers.  The difference between the diary quotations presented and modern media/public education propaganda is stark.

-         Territorial Imperative and African Genesis by Dr. Robert Ardrey studies territorial impulses of animals and how to strengthen and weaken them.  These techniques are utilized on citizenry today by power-brokers in America and worldwide.

-         Why Civilizations Self-Destruct, by Dr. Elmer Pendell.

-       The Dispossessed Majority, by Wilmot Robertson, written in the early 70’s concerning the deterioration of America and Europe, and the causes thereof.  It is  still valid today.

-       The Mediator, by Dr. Richard Swartzbaugh, discusses why racial conflict is necessary for the power-brokers to remain strong.